I can hardly imagine an electronics enthusiast without some sort of test bench. This can be as simple as a folding table and a couple of hand tools, along with a cheap DMM (Digital MultiMeter). Or, it can be as elaborate as a spare room just loaded with TE and a full complement of tools and accessories to go with it.
Many techs of yesteryear built their projects on a breadboard, then would transfer everything to a mirror copper clad board. Here's everything you need to know to use this timeless technique to wire up circuits for prototyping or functional applications.
With the wild fluctuations in fuel prices over the years, world concern over global warming, and simply the idea of creating new and more sustainable technologies, immense interest and progress continues in the world of battery development. Perhaps one day soon we’ll have a battery that displays no “memory” effect; can be completely discharged or overcharged without harm; and require no complex computerized management system. This battery could even prove so durable it will be immune to damage from vibration and not break down chemically over time. In operation, such a battery might also routinely outlast the very vehicle or machine it was designed to operate in! Lastly, we could complete our wish list by adding in the impossible: low materials toxicity, simple construction, and, of course, good energy density. Does such a battery sound like too much to hope for? Thomas Edison didn’t think so.
Not every application needs a microcontroller, yet often times they're used in a project unnecessarily. I’ll show you two examples of circuits that don't use a micro, but are often built with one, and explain some of the logic and theory behind these circuits.